What Is Licorice Used for Today?
What Is the Scientific Evidence for Licorice?
Interactions You Should Know About
- Digoxin : Long-term use of licorice can be dangerous.
- Thiazide or loop diuretics : Use of licorice might lead to excessive potassium loss. 18
- Corticosteroid treatment : Licorice could increase both its negative and positive effects. Do not take licorice internally if using corticosteroids.
- Aspirin or other anti-inflammatory drugs : Regular use of DGL might help lower the risk of ulcers.
1 Stewart PM, Wallace AM, Valentino R, et al. Mineralocorticoid activity of liquorice: 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency comes of age. Lancet. 1987;2:821-824.
2 Conn JW, Rovner DR, Cohen EL. Licorice-induced pseudoaldosteronism. Hypertension, hypokaelemia, aldosteronopenia and suppressed plasma renin activity. JAMA. 1968;205:492-496.
3 Epstein MT, Espiner EA, Donald RA, et al. Effect of eating liquorice on the renin-angiotensin aldosterone axis in normal subjects. Br Med J. 1977;1:488-490.
4 Mantero F. Exogenous mineralocorticoid-like disorders. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1981;10:465-478.
5 van Marle J, Aarsen PN, Lind A, et al. Deglycyrrhizinised liquorice (DGL) and the renewal of rat stomach epithelium. Eur J Pharmacol . 1981;72:219-225.
6 Johnston B, McIsaac RL. The effect of some anti-ulcer agents on basal gastric mucosal blood flow and transmucosal flux of hydrogen and sodium ions in the conscious dog. Br J Pharmacol . 1981;73:308.
7 Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians' Guide to Herbal Medicine . 3rd ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1998:185.
8 Rees WD, Rhodes J, Wright JE, et al. Effect of deglycyrrhizinated liquorice on gastric mucosal damage by aspirin. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1979;14:605-607.
9 Morgan AG, Pacsoo C, McAdam WA. Maintenance therapy: a two year comparison between Caved-S and cimetidine treatment in the prevention of symptomatic gastric ulcer recurrence. Gut . 1985;26:599-602.
10 Kassir ZA. Endoscopic controlled trial of four drug regimens in the treatment of chronic duodenal ulceration. Ir Med J. 1985;78:153-156.
11 Armanini D, Palermo M. Reduction of serum testosterone in men by licorice. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:1158.
12 Teelucksingh S, Mackie AD, Burt D, et al. Potentiation of hydrocortisone activity in skin by glycyrrhetinic acid. Lancet . 1990;335:1060-1063.
13 Kumagai A, Nanaboshi M, Asanuma Y, et al. Effects of glycyrrhizin on thymolytic and immunosupressive action of cortisone. Endocrinol Jpn. 1967;14:39-42.
14 Tamura Y, Nishikawa T, Yamada K, et al. Effects of glycyrrhetinic acid and its derivatives on delta-4-5-alpha- and 5-beta-reductase in rat liver. Arzneimittelforschung. 1979;29:647-649.
15 Budzinski JW, Foster BC, Vandenhoek S, et al. An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by selected commercial herbal extracts and tinctures. Phytomedicine. 2000;7:273-282.
16 Zava DT, Dollbaum CM, Blen M. Estrogen and progestin bioactivity of foods, herbs and spices. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1998;217:369-378.
17 Strandberg TE, Jarvenpaa AL, Vanhanen H, et al. Birth outcome in relation to licorice consumption during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;153:1085-1088.
18 Shintani S, Murase H, Tsukagoshi H, et al. Glycyrrhizin (licorice)-induced hypokalemic myopathy. Report of two cases and review of the literature. Eur Neurol. 1992;32:44-51.
19 Sigurjonsdottir HA, Franzson L, Manhem K, Ragnarsson J, Sigurdsson G, Wallerstedt S. Liquorice-induced rise in blood pressure: a linear dose-response relationship. J Hum Hypertens . 2001;15:549-552.
20 van Gelderen CE, Bijlsma JA, van Dokkum W, et al. Glycyrrhizic acid: the assessment of a no effect level. Hum Exp Toxicol . 2000;19:434-439.
21 Lin SH, Chau T. A puzzling cause of hypokalaemia. Lancet . 2002;360:224.
22 Saeedi M, Morteza-Semnani K, Ghoreishi MR. The treatment of atopic dermatitis with licorice gel. J DermatologTreat . 2003 Sep;14:153-157.
23 Yoshida S, Takayama Y. Licorice-induced hypokalemia as a treatable cause of dropped head syndrome. ClinNeurol Neurosurg . 2003;105:286-287.
24 Somjen D, Knoll E, Vaya J, et al. Estrogen-like activity of licorice root constituents: glabridin and glabrene, in vascular tissues in vitro and in vivo. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol . 2004;91:147-155.
25 Strandberg TE, Andersson S, Jarvenpaa AL, et al. Preterm birth and licorice consumption during pregnancy. AmJ Epidemiol . 2002;156:803-805.
26 Kolbe L, Immeyer J, Batzer J, et al. Anti-inflammatory efficacy of Licochalcone A: correlation of clinical potency and in vitro effects. Arch Dermatol Res. 2006 Mar 22. [Epub ahead of print]
27 Orlent H, Hansen BE, Willems M, et al. Biochemical and histological effects of 26 weeks of glycyrrhizin treatment in chronic hepatitis C: A randomized phase II trial. J Hepatol . 2006 Jun 30. [Epub ahead of print]
28 Arase Y, Ikeda K, Murashima N, et al. The long term efficacy of glycyrrhizin in chronic hepatitis C patients. Cancer . 1997;79:1494-1500
29 Martin MD, Sherman J, van der Ven P, et al. A controlled trial of a dissolving oral patch concerning glycyrrhiza (licorice) herbal extract for the treatment of aphthous ulcers. Gen Dent. 2008;56:206-210;quiz 211-212,224.
As of 4/11/2011, additional research published on licorice does not warrant any changes to this article.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 07/2012 -
- Update Date: 07/25/2012 -