Chronic Renal Failure
(Chronic Kidney Disease)
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- Race: African Americans more than Caucasians
- Genetics: type 1 diabetes, polycystic kidney disease
- High blood pressure
- Smoking cigarettes
- Heavy alcohol consumption
- Urinary reflux, also known as vesicoureteral
- Chronic urinary tract infections
- Exposure to high levels of lead
- Being overweight or obese
- Other family members with kidney disease
- A previous kidney transplant
- Not sleeping well
- Less desire to eat than usual
- Shortness of breath
- Altered taste
- Altered mental state
- Blood tests
- Controlling protein in the urine by restricting the amount of protein in the diet or medication
- Taking ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor antagonists to slow the progression to chronic renal failure
- Reducing the use of and the dosages of drugs that may be toxic to the kidneys
- Managing the complications of chronic renal disease such as fluid overload, high blood phosphate or potassium levels, low blood level of calcium, and anemia
- Lowering high blood pressure
- Controlling blood sugar and lipid levels
- Staying hydrated
- Controlling salt in the diet
- Quitting smoking
- Undergoing dialysis, a medical process that cleans the blood
- Having a kidney transplant
- Counseling for you and your family about dialysis and/or transplant options
- Get a physical exam every year that includes a urine test to monitor your kidney's health.
- Do not smoke. Stop smoking if you are a smoker.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Drink water and other fluids to stay hydrated.
- People who have diabetes, previously known kidney disease, high blood pressure, or are over the age of 60 should be screened regularly for kidney disease.
- People with a family history of kidney disease should also be screened regularly.
American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.familydoctor.org
National Kidney Foundation http://www.kidney.org
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://www.kidney.ca
Chronic renal failure. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 22, 2013. Accessed July 12, 2013.
Pendse S, Singh AK. Complications of chronic kidney disease: anemia, mineral metabolism, and cardiovascular disease. Med Clin N Am. 2005; 89:549-561.
Snyder S and Pendergraph B. Detection and evaluation of chronic kidney disease. Am Fam Physician. 2005; 72:1739-1746. Available at: http://www.aafp.org/afp/20051101/1723.html. Accessed July 12, 2013.
Zandi-Nejod K, Brenner BM. Strategies to retard the progression of chronic renal disease. Med Clin N Am. 2005; 89:489-509.
- Reviewer: Adrienne Carmack, MD; Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 07/2013 -
- Update Date: 05/11/2013 -